Summary: Deprivation predicts increased hip fracture risk. Over 14 years, hip fracture incidence increased among men with persisting inequalities. Among women, inequalities in incidence were less pronounced; whilst incidence decreased overall, this improvement was seen marginally less in women from the most deprived areas. Hip fracture prevention programmes have not reduced inequalities. Purpose: Deprivation is associated with increased hip fracture risk. We examined the effect of area-level deprivation on hip fracture incidence in England over 14 years to determine whether inequalities have changed over time. Methods: We used English Hospital Episodes Statistics (2001/2002–2014/2015) to identify hip fractures in adults aged 50+ years and mid-year population estimates (2001–2014) from the Office for National Statistics. The Index of Multiple Deprivation measured local area deprivation. We calculated age-adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRR) for hip fracture, stratified by gender and deprivation quintiles. Results: Over 14 years, we identified 747,369 hospital admissions with an index hip fracture; the number increased from 50,640 in 2001 to 55,092 in 2014; the proportion of men increased from 22.2% to 29.6%. Whereas incidence rates decreased in women (annual reduction 1.1%), they increased in men (annual increase 0.6%) (interaction p < 0.001). Incidence was higher in more deprived areas, particularly among men: IRR most vs. least deprived quintile 1.50 [95% CI 1.48, 1.52] in men, 1.17 [1.16, 1.18] in women. Age-standardised incidence increased for men across all deprivation quintiles from 2001 to 2014. Among women, incidence fell more among those least compared to most deprived (year by deprivation interaction p < 0.001). Conclusions: Deprivation is a stronger relative predictor of hip fracture incidence in men than in women. However, given their higher hip fracture incidence, the absolute burden of deprivation on hip fractures is greater in women. Despite public health efforts to prevent hip fractures, the health inequality gap for hip fracture incidence has not narrowed for men, and marginally widened among women.
- Health inequality
- Index of multiple deprivation
- Neck of femur
- Secular trend