The Ethno-Religious Wage Gap within the British Salariat Class: How Severe is the Penalty?

Nabil Khattab*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)

6 Citations (Scopus)


This study analyses data obtained from the UK Labour Force Survey (LFS) 2002–2013 to examine the ethno-religious differences in the gross hourly pay within the British salariat occupational class. It explores the extent to which these differences are associated with ethnicity, religion or both. The findings suggest that substantial between-group differences do exist, but these differences cannot be attributed to a pure religious or ethnic discrimination. Although two of the Muslim groups experience a greater penalty than many of the other groups, there was no evidence for an overarching ‘Muslim penalty’. There also was no evidence for an overarching ‘Black penalty’. It is possible that within the salariat class, mechanisms other than pure colour and cultural racism are at work.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)813-824
Number of pages12
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2016



  • earnings
  • ethnic differences
  • ethno-religious penalties
  • labour market
  • Muslim penalty
  • pay gap
  • UK
  • wages

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