The Formin FMNL3 Controls Early Apical Specification in Endothelial Cells by Regulating the Polarized Trafficking of Podocalyxin

Mark D Richards, Clare L Hetheridge, Harry Mellor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)
286 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Angiogenesis is the fundamental process by which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vasculature. It plays a critical role in the formation of the vasculature during development and is triggered in response to tissue hypoxia in adult organisms. This process requires complex and coordinated regulation of the endothelial cell cytoskeleton to control cell shape and polarity. In our previous work, we showed that the cytoskeletal regulator FMNL3/FRL2 controls the alignment of stabilized microtubules during polarized endothelial cell elongation and that depletion of FMNL3 retards elongation of the intersegmental vessels in zebrafish [1]. Recent work has shown that FMNL3 is also needed for vascular lumen formation [2], a critical element of the formation of functional vessels. Here, we show that FMNL3 interacts with Cdc42 and RhoJ, two Rho family GTPases known to be required for lumen formation. FMNL3 and RhoJ are concentrated at the early apical surface, or AMIS, and regulate the formation of radiating actin cables from this site. In diverse biological systems, formins mediate polarized trafficking through the generation of similar actin filaments tracks. We show that FMNL3 and RhoJ are required for polarized trafficking of podocalyxin to the early apical surface—an important event in vascular lumenogenesis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2325-2331
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent Biology
Volume27
Issue number17
Early online date20 Aug 2015
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2015

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