The Hot and Energetic Universe: The evolution of galaxy groups and clusters

E. Pointecouteau, T. H. Reiprich, C. Adami, M. Arnaud, V. Biffi, S. Borgani, K. Borm, H. Bourdin, M. Brueggen, E. Bulbul, N. Clerc, J. H. Croston, K. Dolag, S. Ettori, A. Finoguenov, J. Kaastra, L. Lovisari, B. Maughan, P. Mazzotta, F. PacaudJ. de Plaa, G. W. Pratt, M. Ramos-Ceja, E. Rasia, J. Sanders, Y. -Y. Zhang, S. Allen, H. Boehringer, G. Brunetti, D. Elbaz, R. Fassbender, H. Hoekstra, H. Hildebrandt, G. Lamer, D. Marrone, J. Mohr, S. Molendi, J. Nevalainen, T. Ohashi, N. Ota, M. Pierre, K. Romer, S. Schindler, T. Schrabback, A. Schwope, R. Smith, V. Springel, A. von der Linden

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Major astrophysical questions related to the formation and evolution of structures, and more specifically of galaxy groups and clusters, will still be open in the coming decade and beyond: what is the interplay of galaxy, supermassive black hole, and intergalactic gas evolution in the most massive objects in the Universe - galaxy groups and clusters? What are the processes driving the evolution of chemical enrichment of the hot diffuse gas in large-scale structures? How and when did the first galaxy groups in the Universe, massive enough to bind more than 10^7 K gas, form? Focussing on the period when groups and clusters assembled (0.5z
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2013

Bibliographical note

Supporting paper for the science theme The Hot and Energetic Universe to be implemented by the Athena+ X-ray observatory ( 10 pages, 4 figures


  • astro-ph.HE
  • astro-ph.CO


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