The Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on Musculoskeletal Health Outcomes in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults living with HIV: A Systematic Review

Justin Penner, Rashida Ferrand, Ceri Richards, Kate Ward, James Burns, Celia Gregson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

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Abstract

Objective: HIV-positive children, adolescents, and young adults are at increased risk poor musculoskeletal outcomes. Increased incidence of vitamin D deficiency in youth living with HIV may further adversely affect musculoskeletal health. We investigated the impact of vitamin D supplementation on a range of musculoskeletal outcomes among individuals aged 0-25 years living with HIV.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted using databases: PubMed/Medline, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge, and EMBASE. Interventional randomised control trials, quasi-experimental trials, and previous systematic reviews/meta-analyses were included. Outcomes included: BMD, BMC, fracture incidence, muscle strength, linear growth (height-for-age Z-score [HAZ]), and biochemical/endocrine biomarkers including bone turnover markers.

Results: Of 497 records, 20 studies met inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies were conducted in North America, one in Asia, two in Europe, and four in Sub-Saharan Africa. High-dose vitamin D supplementation regimens (1,000-7,000 IU/day) were successful in achieving serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25OHD) concentrations above study-defined thresholds. No improvements were observed in BMD, BMC, or in muscle power, force and strength; however, improvements in neuromuscular motor skills were demonstrated. HAZ was unaffected by low-dose (200-400 IU/day) supplementation. A single study found positive effects on HAZ with high-dose supplementation (7,000 vs 4,000IU/day).

Conclusions: Measured bone outcomes were unaffected by high-dose vitamin D supplementation, even when target 25OHD measurements were achieved. This may be due to: insufficient sample size, follow-up, intermittent dosing, non-standardised definitions of vitamin D deficiency, or heterogeneity of enrolment criteria pertaining to baseline vitamin D concentration. High-dose vitamin D may improve HAZ and neuromuscular motor skills. Adequately powered trials are needed in settings where HIV burden is greatest.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0207022
Number of pages25
JournalPLoS ONE
Volume13
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2018

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