The influence of mode of anaesthesia on perioperative outcomes in people with hip fracture: A prospective cohort study from the National Hip Fracture Database for England, Wales and Northern Ireland

Gulraj Matharu*, Anjali Shah, Sam Hawley, Antony Johansen, Dominic Inman, Iain Moppett, Michael R Whitehouse, Andrew Judge

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

Background
Delirium is common after hip fracture surgery, affecting up to 50% of patients. The incidence of delirium may be influenced by mode and conduct of anaesthesia. We examined the effect of spinal anaesthesia (with and without sedation) compared with general anaesthesia on early outcomes following hip fracture surgery, including delirium.

Methods
We used prospective data on 107,028 patients (2018 to 2019) from the National Hip Fracture Database, which records all hip fractures in patients aged 60 years and over in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. Patients were grouped by anaesthesia: general (58,727; 55%), spinal without sedation (31,484; 29%), and spinal with sedation (16,817; 16%). Outcomes (4AT score on post-operative delirium screening; mobilisation day one post-operatively; length of hospital stay; discharge destination; 30-day mortality) were compared between anaesthetic groups using multivariable logistic and linear regression models.

Results
Compared with general anaesthesia, spinal anaesthesia without sedation (but not spinal with sedation) was associated with a significantly reduced risk of delirium (odds ratio (OR)=0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.92–0.98), increased likelihood of day one mobilisation (OR=1.06, CI=1.02–1.10) and return to original residence (OR=1.04, CI=1.00–1.07). Spinal without sedation (p
Conclusions
Spinal and general anaesthesia achieve similar outcomes for patients with hip fracture. However, this equivalence appears to reflect improved perioperative outcomes (including a reduced risk of delirium, increased likelihood of mobilisation day one post-operatively, shorter length of hospital stay and improved likelihood of returning to previous residence on discharge) among the sub-set of patients who received spinal anaesthesia without sedation. The role and effect of sedation should be studied in future trials of hip fracture patients undergoing spinal anaesthesia.
Original languageEnglish
Article number319
Pages (from-to)1-11
JournalBMC Medicine
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 Sept 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
One of the authors [GSM] was supported by the Academy of Medical Sciences, the Wellcome Trust, the Medical Research Council, the British Heart Foundation, Versus Arthritis, Diabetes UK, the British Thoracic Society (Helen and Andrew Douglas bequest), and the Association of Physicians of Great Britain and Ireland) to carry out the work presented [SGL023\1021]. This study was supported by the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at University Hospitals Bristol and Weston NHS Foundation Trust and the University of Bristol. The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the National Institute for Health Research or the Department of Health and Social Care.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s).

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