The lateral cerebellum receives an abundance of visual input providing the link between visual and motor control centers. In this review we discuss experiments designed to increase our understanding of how visual inputs to the cerebellum are arranged in relation to the zonal organization of the cerebellar cortex, and how visual inputs are utilized to assist in the regulation of a visually guided movement. On the basis of anatomical and physiological characteristics our findings indicate that the medial-most folium in crus I of the cat lateral cerebellum can be subdivided into at least three functionally distinct zones; from lateral to medial along the length of the folium these correspond to zones D(1), lateral C(3) and C(2). Each zone displays clear differences in olivo-cortico-nuclear connectivity and in the anesthetized animal zones D, and C, both receive powerful visual inuts relayed via the climbing fiber system. Complementary experiments in awake behaving cats found that Purkinje cells located in the D(1) and D(2) zones of crus I exhibit changes in simple spike discharge time locked to target motion during a visually guided reaching task. These changes were unaffected by temporary visual denial of the target, raising the possibility that internally generated feedforward visuomotor control mechanisms are operating, in which a predictive model of the target's motion has been constructed by the CNS.