Dynamin is an endocytic protein that functions in vesicle formation by scission of invaginated membranes. Dynamin maintains the structure of foot processes in glomerular podocytes by directly and indirectly interacting with actin filaments. However, molecular mechanisms underlying dynamin-mediated actin regulation are largely unknown. Here, biochemical and cell biological experiments were conducted to uncover how dynamin modulates interactions between membranes and actin in human podocytes. Actin-bundling, membrane tubulating, and GTPase activities of dynamin were examined in vitro using recombinant dynamin 2-wild-type (WT) or dynamin 2-K562E, which is a mutant found in Charcot-Marie-Tooth patients. Dynamin 2-WT and dynamin 2-K562E led to the formation of prominent actin bundles with constant diameters. Whereas liposomes incubated with dynamin 2-WT resulted in tubule formation, dynamin 2-K562E reduced tubulation. Actin filaments and liposomes stimulated dynamin 2-WT GTPase activity by 6- and 20-fold, respectively. Actin-filaments, but not liposomes, stimulated dynamin 2-K562E GTPase activity by 4-fold. Self-assembly-dependent GTPase activity of dynamin 2-K562E was reduced to one-third compared to that of dynamin 2-WT. Incubation of liposomes and actin with dynamin 2-WT led to the formation of thick actin bundles, which often bound to liposomes. The interaction between lipid membranes and actin bundles by dynamin 2-K562E was lower than that by dynamin 2-WT. Dynamin 2-WT partially colocalized with stress fibers and actin bundles based on double immunofluorescence of human podocytes. Dynamin 2-K562E expression resulted in decreased stress fiber density and the formation of aberrant actin clusters. Dynamin 2-K562E colocalized with α-actinin-4 in aberrant actin clusters. Reformation of stress fibers after cytochalasin D-induced actin depolymerization and washout was less effective in dynamin 2-K562E-expressing cells than that in dynamin 2-WT. Bis-T-23, a dynamin self-assembly enhancer, was unable to rescue the decreased focal adhesion numbers and reduced stress fiber density induced by dynamin 2-K562E expression. These results suggest that the low affinity of the K562E mutant for lipid membranes, and atypical self-assembling properties, lead to actin disorganization in HPCs. Moreover, lipid-binding and self-assembly of dynamin 2 along actin filaments are required for podocyte morphology and functions. Finally, dynamin 2-mediated interactions between actin and membranes are critical for actin bundle formation in HPCs.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank Kento Sumida, Sayaka Seiriki, and The Mon La (Okayama University, Okayama, Japan) for technical assistance. The work was supported by Okayama University Central Research Laboratory.
This work was supported, in part, by grants from the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports, and Culture of Japan (grant numbers 19H03225, 21K19484 to Takei K, 20K08591 to Yamada H and 19K07084 to Abe T), the Okayama University Central Research Laboratory, Ehime University Proteo-Science Center (PROS), and by Joint Research by Exploratory Research Center on Life and Living Systems (ExCELLS) program No 18-305 to Yamada H).
Copyright © 2022 Hamasaki, Wakita, Yasuoka, Nagaoka, Morita, Takashima, Uchihashi, Takeda, Abe, Lee, Iimura, Saleem, Ogo, Asai, Narita, Takei and Yamada.