The long-term growth of volcanic edifices: numerical modelling of the role of dyke intrusion and lava-flow emplacement

CJ Annen, J-F Lénat, A Provost

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)

Abstract

The contribution of intrusive complexes to volcano growth is attested by field observations and by the monitoring of active volcanoes. We used numerical simulations to quantitatively estimate the relative contributions to volcano growth of elastic dislocations related to dyke intrusions and of the accumulation of lava flows. The ground uplift induced by dyke intrusions was calculated with the equations of Okada (Bull. Seismol, Soc. Am., 75 ( 1985) 1135). The spreading of lava flows was simulated as the flow of a Bingham fluid. With realistic parameters for dyke statistics and lava-flow theology we find the contribution of dyke intrusions to the growth of a basaltic shield archetype to be about 13% in terms of volume and 30% in terms of height. The result is strongly dependent on the proportion of dykes reaching the surface to feed a lava flow. Systematic tasting of the model indicates that edifices tend to be high and steep if dykes are thick and high, issued From a small and shallow magma chamber, and if they feed lava Rows of high yield strength. The simulation was applied to Ko'olau (O'ahu ls., Hawai'i) and Piton de la Fournaise (Reunion is.) volcanoes. The simulation of Ko'olau with dyke parameters as described by Walker (Geology. 14 (1986) 310, U.S. Geol. Surv, Prof. Pap., 1350 (1987) 961) and with lava-Row characteristics collected at Kilauea volcano (Hawai'i ls.) results in an edifice morphology very close to that of the real volcano. The best fit model of the Piton de la Fournaise central cone, with its steep slope and E-W elongation, is obtained by the intrusion of 10 000 short and thick dykes issued from a very small and shallow magma chamber and feeding only 700 low-volume lava flows. The same method may be applied to the growth of basaltic shields and other volcano types in different environments, including non-terrestrial volcanism.
Translated title of the contributionThe long-term growth of volcanic edifices: numerical modelling of the role of dyke intrusion and lava-flow emplacement
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)263 - 289
JournalJournal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
Volume105
Publication statusPublished - 2001

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