Parasitic nematodes are highly diverse and common, infecting virtually all animal species, and the importance of their roles in natural ecosystems is increasingly becoming apparent. How genes flow within and among populations of these parasites – their population genetics – has profound implications for the epidemiology of host infection and disease, and for the response of parasite populations to selection pressures. The population genetics of nematode parasites of wild animals may have consequences for host conservation, or influence the risk of zoonotic disease. Host movement has long been recognised as an important determinant of parasitic nematode population genetic structure, and recent research has also highlighted the importance of nematode life histories, environmental conditions, and other aspects of host ecology. Commonly, factors influencing parasitic nematode population genetics have been studied in isolation, such that an integrated view of the drivers of population genetic structure of parasitic nematodes is still lacking. Here, we seek to provide a comprehensive, broad, and integrative picture of these factors in parasitic nematodes of wild animals that will be a useful resource for investigators studying non-model parasitic nematodes in natural ecosystems. Increasingly, new methods of analysing the population genetics of nematodes are becoming available, and we consider the opportunities that these afford in resolving hitherto inaccessible questions of the population genetics of these important animals.