Purpose: The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), disparities in organisation and outcome, recent advances in treatment and ongoing controversies. We also outline the standard of care that should be provided by the critical care specialist and propose future directions for cardiac arrest research. Methods: Narrative review with contributions from international resuscitation experts. Results: Although it is recognised that survival rates from OHCA are increasing there is considerable scope for improvement and many countries have implemented national strategies in an attempt to achieve this goal. More resources are required to enable high-quality randomised trials in resuscitation.Conclusions: Increasing international collaboration should facilitate resuscitation research and knowledge translation. The International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) has adopted a continuous evidence review process, which facilitate the implementation of resuscitation interventions proven to improve patient outcomes.
- Cardiac arrest
- Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
- Post-resuscitation care