The relationship between happiness and intelligent quotient: the contribution of socio-economic and clinical factors

Afia Ali, Graeme K Ambler, Andre Strydom, Dheeraj Rai, Claudia Cooper, Sally McManus, Scott Weich, Howard Meltzer, S Dein, Angela Hassiotis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)


Happiness and higher intelligent quotient (IQ) are independently related to positive health outcomes. However, there are inconsistent reports about the relationship between IQ and happiness. The aim was to examine the association between IQ and happiness and whether it is mediated by social and clinical factors.

The authors analysed data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey in England. The participants were adults aged 16 years or over, living in private households in 2007. Data from 6870 participants were included in the study. Happiness was measured using a validated question on a three-point scale. Verbal IQ was estimated using the National Adult Reading Test and both categorical and continuous IQ was analysed.

Happiness is significantly associated with IQ. Those in the lowest IQ range (70–99) reported the lowest levels of happiness compared with the highest IQ group (120–129). Mediation analysis using the continuous IQ variable found dependency in activities of daily living, income, health and neurotic symptoms were strong mediators of the relationship, as they reduced the association between happiness and IQ by 50%.

Those with lower IQ are less happy than those with higher IQ. Interventions that target modifiable variables such as income (e.g. through enhancing education and employment opportunities) and neurotic symptoms (e.g. through better detection of mental health problems) may improve levels of happiness in the lower IQ groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1303-1312
Number of pages10
JournalPsychological Medicine
Issue number6
Early online date24 Sept 2012
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013


  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • England
  • Female
  • Happiness
  • Health Status
  • Humans
  • Income
  • Intellectual Disability
  • Intelligence
  • Intelligence Tests
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neurotic Disorders
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Young Adult


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