Skip to content

The Rise and Fall of the “Personal Equation” in American and British Medicine, 1855–1952

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-71
Number of pages31
JournalPerspectives in Biology and Medicine
Issue number1
DateAccepted/In press - 23 Jan 2019
DatePublished (current) - 23 Apr 2019


Originating within astronomy as a technical term in the first half of the 18th century, the term “personal equation” spread into a litany of other fields including medicine, where it was used widely and variously from the late 19th century to the middle of the 20th century. We explore the personal equation in the medical literatures of the United States and Britain through a systematic analysis of over 700 articles in four prominent medical journals in conjunction with additional relevant source materials. After tracing the term’s dispersion from astronomy into medically allied fields, we examine its striking polysemy while using its rich usage as a lens to examine prevailing tensions within contemporary American and British medicine. Stretching from patient and clinician variability to observer variability and error, the personal equation’s various meanings reflect debates about the art and science of medical care that persist into the present day.

Download statistics

No data available



  • Full-text PDF (accepted author manuscript)

    Rights statement: This is the author accepted manuscript (AAM). The final published version (version of record) is available online via Johns Hopkins Press at . Please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.

    Accepted author manuscript, 510 KB, PDF document

    Licence: Unspecified


View research connections

Related faculties, schools or groups