In eukaryotes, DNA is packaged into chromatin and is therefore relatively inaccessible to DNA repair enzymes. In order to perform efficient DNA repair, ATP-dependent chromatin-remodeling enzymes are required to alter the chromatin structure near the site of damage to facilitate processing and allow access to repair enzymes. Two of the best-studied remodeling complexes involved in repair are RSC (Remodels the Structure of Chromatin) and INO80 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which are both conserved in higher eukaryotes. RSC is very rapidly recruited to breaks and mobilizes nucleosomes to promote phosphorylation of H2A S129 and resection. INO80 enrichment at a break occurs later and is dependent on phospho-S129 H2A. INO80 activity at the break site also facilitates resection. Consequently, both homologous recombination and nonhomologous end-joining are defective in rsc mutants, while subsets of these repair pathways are affected in ino80 mutants.
|Number of pages||33|
|Journal||Progress in molecular biology and translational science|
|Publication status||Published - 2012|
Bibliographical noteCopyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
- Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly
- DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded
- DNA Helicases
- DNA Repair
- Models, Biological
- Multiprotein Complexes