The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein disrupts the cooperative function of human cardiac pericytes - endothelial cells through CD147 receptor-mediated signalling: a potential non-infective mechanism of COVID-19 microvascular disease

Elisa Avolio*, Monica Gamez, Kapil Gupta, Rebecca Foster, Imre Berger, Massimo Caputo, Andrew D Davidson, David J Hill, Paolo R Madeddu*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

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Abstract

Background Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifests as a life-threatening microvascular syndrome. The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uses primarily the capsid spike (S) protein to engage with its receptors and infect host cells. To date, it is still not known if the S protein alone, without the other viral elements, is able to trigger vascular cell signalling and provoke cell dysfunction.

Methods We investigated the effects of the recombinant, stabilised S protein on primary human cardiac pericytes (PCs) signalling and function. Endpoints included cell viability, proliferation, migration, cooperation with endothelial cells (ECs) in angiogenesis assays, and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Adopting a blocking strategy against the S protein receptors ACE2 and CD147, we explored which receptor mediates the S protein signalling in PCs.

Findings We show, for the first time, that the recombinant S protein alone elicits functional alterations in cardiac PCs. This was documented as: (1) increased migration, (2) reduced ability to support EC network formation on Matrigel, (3) secretion of pro-inflammatory molecules typically involved in the cytokine storm, and (4) production of pro-apoptotic factors responsible for EC death. Furthermore, the S protein stimulates the phosphorylation/activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) through the CD147 receptor, but not ACE2, in cardiac PCs. Accordingly, the neutralization of CD147, using a blocking antibody, prevented the activation of ERK1/2 and partially rescued the PC function in the presence of the S protein.

Interpretation Our findings suggest the new, intriguing hypothesis that the S protein may elicit vascular cell dysfunction, potentially amplifying, or perpetuating, the damage caused by the whole coronavirus. This mechanism may have clinical and therapeutic implication.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages19
JournalbioRxiv
DOIs
Publication statusUnpublished - 21 Dec 2020

Structured keywords

  • Covid19

Keywords

  • Cardiac microvascular disease
  • Cardiac pericyte
  • CD147
  • COVID-19
  • Cytokine storm
  • S protein
  • SARS-CoV-2

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