The Urinary Tract: Form and Function

Basu Chakrabarty, Jonathan J Crook, Marcus Drake, Niall Gilliland, Dev Gulur, Darryl Kitney, Aditya Manjunath, Pavlo Somov, Bahareh Vahabi

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter in a book


The lower urinary tract (LUT) has two major organs, the bladder and the urethra, with complex structures and physiological behaviour. They serve two key functions of urine storage and voiding, which require tight regulation from all levels of the nervous system. The behaviour of the LUT is driven by the task to handle the output from the kidneys, which is determined by the need of the body to balance water and salt, and to excrete toxins. This complexity makes the LUT vulnerable from a range of potential factors.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Adults
EditorsMarcus Drake, Andrea Cocci, Ricardo Pereira e Silva
PublisherSpringer, Cham
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-030-27747-5
ISBN (Print)978-3-030-27745-1
Publication statusPublished - 14 Nov 2019


  • Urinary bladder
  • Urethral sphincter
  • Micturition cycle
  • Bladder sensation
  • Bladder dysfunction


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