The use and misuse of p values and related concepts

Richard G. Brereton

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article (Academic Journal)peer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The paper describes historic origins of p values via the work of Fisher, and the competing approach by Neyman and Pearson. Concepts of type 1 and type 2 errors, false positive rates, power, and prevalence are also defined, and the merger of the two approaches via the Null Hypothesis Significance Test. The relationship between p values and false detection rate is discussed. The reproducibility of p values is described. The current controversy over the use of p values and significance tests is introduced.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103884
Number of pages7
JournalChemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems
Early online date29 Oct 2019
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2019


  • False positive rate
  • Hypothesis test
  • Null hypothesis
  • p value
  • Significance test
  • Type 1 error
  • Type 2 error


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