The XXL Survey XLIV. Sunyaev-Zel'dovich mapping of a low-mass cluster at z~1: a multi-wavelength approach

the XXL consortium, M. Ricci*, M. Birkinshaw, M. Bremer, S. Fotopoulou, P. Giles, B. Maughan

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)


In this paper, we present resolved observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, obtained with the NIKA2 camera, towards the cluster of galaxies XLSSC102, a relatively low-mass system ($M_{500} \sim 2 \times 10^{14}$ M$_{\odot}$) at $z = 0.97$ detected from the XXL survey. We combine NIKA2 SZ data, XMM-Newton X-ray data, and Megacam optical data to explore, respectively, the spatial distribution of the gas electron pressure, the gas density, and the galaxies themselves. We find significant offsets between the X-ray peak, the SZ peak, the brightest cluster galaxy, and the peak of galaxy density. Additionally, the galaxy distribution and the gas present elongated morphologies. This is interpreted as the sign of a recent major merging event, which induced a local boost of the gas pressure towards the north of XLSSC102 and stripped the gas out of the galaxy group. The NIKA2 data are also combined with XXL data to construct the thermodynamic profiles of XLSSC102, obtaining relatively tight constraints up to about $\sim r_{500}$, and revealing properties that are typical of disturbed systems. We also explore the impact of the cluster centre definition and the implication of local pressure substructure on the recovered profiles. Finally, we derive the global properties of XLSSC102 and compare them to those of high-mass-and-low-redshift systems, finding no strong evidence for non-standard evolution. We also use scaling relations to obtain alternative mass estimates from our profiles. The variation between these different mass estimates reflects the difficulty to accurately measure the mass of low-mass clusters at z$\sim$1, especially with low signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) data and for a disturbed system. However, it also highlights the strength of resolved SZ observations alone and in combination with survey-like X-ray data.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 4 Mar 2020


  • astro-ph.CO

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