Tocopherols, Tocomonoenols, and Tocotrienols in Oils of Costa Rican Palm Fruits: A Comparison between Six Varieties and Chemical versus Mechanical Extraction

Andrea Irías-Mata, Wolfgang Stuetz, Nadine Sus, Simon Hammann, Katrin Gralla, Aracelly Cordero-Solano, Walter Vetter, Jan Frank*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)

15 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Palm oil is one of the richest sources of tocotrienols and may contain other non-tocopherol vitamin E congeners. The vitamin E profiles of fully ripened fruit mesocarp of three Elaeis guineensis, two Elaeis oleifera, and one hybrid O × G palm fruit genotypes from Costa Rica were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after mechanical extraction by a screw press and chemical extraction with hexane. γ-Tocotrienol, α-tocotrienol, and α-tocopherol were the most abundant tocochromanols, while other tocopherols (β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol) and α-tocomonoenol were detected at minor concentrations. Significant differences in vitamin E profiles between genotypes were observed, and the variety E. oleifera Quepos (CB9204) had by far the highest content of total tocotrienols (890 μg/g of oil) and total vitamin E (892 μg/g of oil). Chemical extraction with hexane afforded up to 2.5-fold higher vitamin E yields than screw press extraction. α-Tocomonoenol co-eluted with γ-tocopherol in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analyses and is a possible source of error in the quantification of γ-tocopherol in foods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7476-7482
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Volume65
Issue number34
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Aug 2017

Keywords

  • chromatography
  • Elaeis guineensis
  • Elaeis oleifera
  • hybrid O × G
  • oil extraction
  • palm fruit oil
  • palm oil extraction byproducts
  • pumpkin seed oil
  • Vitamin E

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