Toughening mechanisms in aromatic polybenzoxazines using thermoplastic oligomers and telechelics

Ian Hamerton*, Lisa T. McNamara, Brendan J. Howlin, Paul A. Smith, Paul Cross, Steven Ward

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

34 Citations (Scopus)


2,2-Bis(3,4-dihydro-3-phenyl-2H-1,3-benzoxazine)propane (BA-a) is blended with oligomers of polyarylsulfone (PSU) and polyarylethersulfone (PES) of different low/intermediate molecular weights (3000-12 000 g mol-1) and terminal functionality (chloro-, hydroxyl- or benzoxazinyl- (Bz)). Fracture toughness (KIC) is observed to increase from 0.8 MPa m0.5 for cured BA-a to 1 MPa m0.5 with the incorporation of 10 wt % PSU-Bz (12 000 g mol-1). Generally, greater improvements in KIC are observed for the PES oligomers compared with the PSU oligomers of equivalent molecular weight. The terminal functionality of the thermoplastic has a lesser effect on improving toughness than increasing the molecular weight or the nature of the polymer backbone. Surface analysis of the fractured surfaces show greater phase separation and crack pinning in the PES toughened system. Where crack pinning is less obvious, as in the case of hydroxyl-terminated PES (of 6000 g mol-1), this coincides with a drop in fracture toughness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1946-1958
Number of pages13
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 25 Mar 2014


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