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Transcription factor cAMP responsive element‐binding protein 3 like 1 (Creb3l1) is a non‐classical endoplasmic reticulum stress molecule that is emerging as an important component for cellular homeostasis, particularly within cell types with high peptide secretory capabilities. We have previously shown that Creb3l1 serves an important role in body fluid homeostasis through its transcriptional control of the gene coding for antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin in the neuropeptide‐rich magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic nucleus. In response to osmotic stimuli such as dehydration, vasopressin magnocellular neurones undergo remarkable transcriptome changes, including increased Creb3l1 expression, to ensure that the supply of vasopressin meets demand. To determine where else Creb3l1 fits into the secretory cell supply chain, we performed RNA‐sequencing of Creb3l1 knockdown anterior pituitary mouse corticotroph cell line AtT20. The target chosen for further investigation was Pcsk1, which encodes proprotein convertase enzyme 1 (PC1/3). PC1/3 is crucial for processing of neuropeptides and peptide hormones such as pro‐opiomelanocortin (POMC), proinsulin, proglucagon, vasopressin and oxytocin. Viral manipulations in supraoptic nuclei by over‐expression of Creb3l1 increased Pcsk1, whereas Creb3l1 knockdown decreased Pcsk1 expression. In vitro promoter activity and binding studies showed that Creb3l1 was a transcription factor of the Pcsk1 gene binding directly to a G‐box motif in the promoter. In the dehydrated rat anterior pituitary, Creb3l1 and Pcsk1 expression decreased in parallel compared to control, supporting our findings from manipulations in AtT20 cells and the supraoptic nucleus. No relationship was observed between Creb3l1 and Pcsk1 expression in the neurointermediate lobe of the pituitary, indicating a different mechanism of PC1/3 synthesis by these POMC‐synthesising cells. Therefore, Creb3l1, by regulating the expression of Pcsk1, does not control the processing of POMC peptides in the intermediate lobe.
- prohormone processing
- supraoptic nucleus
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