Transtensional deformation of Montserrat revealed by shear wave splitting

Alan F. Baird*, J. Michael Kendall, R. Stephen J Sparks, Brian Baptie

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Here we investigate seismic anisotropy of the upper crust in the vicinity of Soufrière Hills volcano using shear wave splitting (SWS) analysis from volcano-tectonic (VT) events. Soufrière Hills, which is located on the island of Montserrat in the Lesser Antilles, became active in 1995 and has been erupting ever since with five major phases of extrusive activity. We use data recorded on a network of seismometers between 1996 and 2007 partially spanning three extrusive phases. Shear-wave splitting in the crust is often assumed to be controlled either by structural features, or by stress aligned cracks. In such a case the polarization of the fast shear wave (ϕ) would align parallel to the strike of the structure, or to the maximum compressive stress direction. Previous studies analyzing SWS in the region using regional earthquakes observed temporal variations in ϕ which were interpreted as being caused by stress perturbations associated with pressurization of a dyke. Our analysis, which uses much shallower sources and thus only samples the anisotropy of the upper few kilometres of the crust, shows no clear temporal variation. However, temporal effects cannot be ruled out, as large fluctuations in the rate of VT events over the course of the study period as well as changes in the seismic network configuration make it difficult to assess. Average delay times of approximately 0.2 s, similar in magnitude to those reported for much deeper slab events, suggest that the bulk of the anisotropy is in the shallow crust. We observe clear spatial variations in anisotropy which we believe are consistent with structurally controlled anisotropy resulting from a left-lateral transtensional array of faults which crosses the volcanic complex.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)179-186
Number of pages8
JournalEarth and Planetary Science Letters
Volume425
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Sep 2015

Keywords

  • Anisotropy
  • Montserrat
  • Shear-wave splitting
  • Transtension

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