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Two major accretion epochs in M31 from two distinct populations of globular clusters

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Two major accretion epochs in M31 from two distinct populations of globular clusters. / Mackey, D; Lewis, Geraint; Brewer, Brenson ; Fergusen, Annette; Huxor, Avon P; Veljanoski, Jovan; Collins, Michelle; Cote, Patrick; Ibata, Rodrigo; Irwin, Mike; Martin, Nicholas; McConnachie, Alan; Penarrubia, Jorge; Tanvir, Nial; Wan, Zhen.

In: Nature, Vol. 574, No. 7776, 02.10.2019, p. 69-71.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Mackey, D, Lewis, G, Brewer, B, Fergusen, A, Huxor, AP, Veljanoski, J, Collins, M, Cote, P, Ibata, R, Irwin, M, Martin, N, McConnachie, A, Penarrubia, J, Tanvir, N & Wan, Z 2019, 'Two major accretion epochs in M31 from two distinct populations of globular clusters', Nature, vol. 574, no. 7776, pp. 69-71. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1597-1

APA

Mackey, D., Lewis, G., Brewer, B., Fergusen, A., Huxor, A. P., Veljanoski, J., ... Wan, Z. (2019). Two major accretion epochs in M31 from two distinct populations of globular clusters. Nature, 574(7776), 69-71. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1597-1

Vancouver

Mackey D, Lewis G, Brewer B, Fergusen A, Huxor AP, Veljanoski J et al. Two major accretion epochs in M31 from two distinct populations of globular clusters. Nature. 2019 Oct 2;574(7776):69-71. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1597-1

Author

Mackey, D ; Lewis, Geraint ; Brewer, Brenson ; Fergusen, Annette ; Huxor, Avon P ; Veljanoski, Jovan ; Collins, Michelle ; Cote, Patrick ; Ibata, Rodrigo ; Irwin, Mike ; Martin, Nicholas ; McConnachie, Alan ; Penarrubia, Jorge ; Tanvir, Nial ; Wan, Zhen. / Two major accretion epochs in M31 from two distinct populations of globular clusters. In: Nature. 2019 ; Vol. 574, No. 7776. pp. 69-71.

Bibtex

@article{cf7fe70ea017408faedc62d040f321e1,
title = "Two major accretion epochs in M31 from two distinct populations of globular clusters",
abstract = "Large galaxies grow through the accumulation of dwarf galaxies. In principle it is possible to trace this growth history via the properties of a galaxy’s stellar halo3. Previous investigations of the galaxy Messier 31 (M31, Andromeda) have shown that outside a galactocentric radius of 25 kiloparsecs the population of halo globular clusters is rotating in alignment with the stellar disk, as are more centrally located clusters. The M31 halo also contains coherent stellar substructures, along with a smoothly distributed stellar component. Many of the globular clusters outside a radius of 25 kiloparsecs are associated with the most prominent substructures, but some are part of the smooth halo. Here we report an analysis of the kinematics of these globular clusters. We find two distinct populations rotating perpendicular to each other. The rotation axis for the population associated with the smooth halo is aligned with the rotation axis for the plane of dwarf galaxies that encircles M31. We interpret these separate cluster populations as arising from two major accretion epochs, probably separated by billions of years. Stellar substructures from the first epoch are gone, but those from the more recent second epoch still remain.",
author = "D Mackey and Geraint Lewis and Brenson Brewer and Annette Fergusen and Huxor, {Avon P} and Jovan Veljanoski and Michelle Collins and Patrick Cote and Rodrigo Ibata and Mike Irwin and Nicholas Martin and Alan McConnachie and Jorge Penarrubia and Nial Tanvir and Zhen Wan",
year = "2019",
month = "10",
day = "2",
doi = "10.1038/s41586-019-1597-1",
language = "English",
volume = "574",
pages = "69--71",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "Springer Nature",
number = "7776",

}

RIS - suitable for import to EndNote

TY - JOUR

T1 - Two major accretion epochs in M31 from two distinct populations of globular clusters

AU - Mackey, D

AU - Lewis, Geraint

AU - Brewer, Brenson

AU - Fergusen, Annette

AU - Huxor, Avon P

AU - Veljanoski, Jovan

AU - Collins, Michelle

AU - Cote, Patrick

AU - Ibata, Rodrigo

AU - Irwin, Mike

AU - Martin, Nicholas

AU - McConnachie, Alan

AU - Penarrubia, Jorge

AU - Tanvir, Nial

AU - Wan, Zhen

PY - 2019/10/2

Y1 - 2019/10/2

N2 - Large galaxies grow through the accumulation of dwarf galaxies. In principle it is possible to trace this growth history via the properties of a galaxy’s stellar halo3. Previous investigations of the galaxy Messier 31 (M31, Andromeda) have shown that outside a galactocentric radius of 25 kiloparsecs the population of halo globular clusters is rotating in alignment with the stellar disk, as are more centrally located clusters. The M31 halo also contains coherent stellar substructures, along with a smoothly distributed stellar component. Many of the globular clusters outside a radius of 25 kiloparsecs are associated with the most prominent substructures, but some are part of the smooth halo. Here we report an analysis of the kinematics of these globular clusters. We find two distinct populations rotating perpendicular to each other. The rotation axis for the population associated with the smooth halo is aligned with the rotation axis for the plane of dwarf galaxies that encircles M31. We interpret these separate cluster populations as arising from two major accretion epochs, probably separated by billions of years. Stellar substructures from the first epoch are gone, but those from the more recent second epoch still remain.

AB - Large galaxies grow through the accumulation of dwarf galaxies. In principle it is possible to trace this growth history via the properties of a galaxy’s stellar halo3. Previous investigations of the galaxy Messier 31 (M31, Andromeda) have shown that outside a galactocentric radius of 25 kiloparsecs the population of halo globular clusters is rotating in alignment with the stellar disk, as are more centrally located clusters. The M31 halo also contains coherent stellar substructures, along with a smoothly distributed stellar component. Many of the globular clusters outside a radius of 25 kiloparsecs are associated with the most prominent substructures, but some are part of the smooth halo. Here we report an analysis of the kinematics of these globular clusters. We find two distinct populations rotating perpendicular to each other. The rotation axis for the population associated with the smooth halo is aligned with the rotation axis for the plane of dwarf galaxies that encircles M31. We interpret these separate cluster populations as arising from two major accretion epochs, probably separated by billions of years. Stellar substructures from the first epoch are gone, but those from the more recent second epoch still remain.

U2 - 10.1038/s41586-019-1597-1

DO - 10.1038/s41586-019-1597-1

M3 - Article

C2 - 31578482

VL - 574

SP - 69

EP - 71

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

IS - 7776

ER -