Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is now well established to improve intact survival after neonatal encephalopathy (NE). However, many questions could not be addressed by the randomized controlled trials. Should late preterm newborns with NE be cooled? Is cooling beneficial for mild NE? Is the current therapeutic time window optimal, or could it be shortened or prolonged? Will either milder or deeper hypothermia be effective? Does infection/inflammation exposure in the perinatal period in combination with NE offer potentially beneficial preconditioning or might it obviate hypothermic neuroprotection? In the present review, we dissect the evidence, for whom, when and how can TH best be delivered, and highlight areas that need further research.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We would like to thank Julia Gundersen for providing Fig. 1.
- Neonatal encephalopathy
- Therapeutic hypothermia