Under examination: Multilevel models, geography and health research

Gwilym T N Owen, Richard J Harris, Kelvyn Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

42 Citations (Scopus)


Since the 1990s, multilevel models have become popular tools for looking at contextual effects upon health. However, the way that geography is incorporated into these models has received criticism due to somewhat arbitrary definitions of what counts as context, the models’ discrete and, arguably, aspatial view of geographical effects, and the lack of any clear theoretical specification of the processes involved. This review draws together and extends these criticisms, arguing that while currently there are problems with how geography is conceived within multilevel models, there are ways of addressing them, and indeed that it is important to do so.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)394-412
Number of pages18
JournalProgress in Human Geography
Issue number3
Early online date23 Apr 2015
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2016


Dive into the research topics of 'Under examination: Multilevel models, geography and health research'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this