Understanding the strain localization in additively manufactured materials: Micro-scale tensile tests and crystal plasticity modeling

Daijun Hu, Zixu Guo, Nicolò Grilli, Aloysius Tay, Zhen Lu, Wentao Yan*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Metallic parts fabricated by additive manufacturing (AM) usually exhibit unique microstructures and non-negligible residual stresses compared with the counterparts produced by conventional manufacturing. These inherent microstructural factors strongly affect the mechanical response of the as-built AM parts. In this study, we focus on the strain localization behavior of 316L stainless steel produced by laser powder-bed-fusion. In-situ tensile tests under a scanning electron microscope are performed, and the digital image correlation method is used to measure the strain distribution combined with electron backscatter diffraction. Meanwhile, a dislocation-based crystal plasticity finite element model incorporating residual stresses is developed to study the origins of the strain localization in the AM material. The results indicate that strain localization in AM materials is closely associated with microstructural features, encompassing behaviors related to slip activities, interactions with neighboring grains and dislocation evolutions. Additionally, the columnar grain features also render the strain distribution sensitive to the loading direction. The strain localization is serious in some small grains with high residual stresses, while in large grains the effect is less significant. These factors collectively contribute to the increasing likelihood of strain localization occurring in the AM microstructures with heterogeneous grain size and texture distribution. This work provides detailed insights into the strain localization in AM materials and would facilitate the manufacturing parameter optimization of AM materials by tuning the microstructure to reduce deformation inhomogeneity.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103981
Number of pages25
JournalInternational Journal of Plasticity
Early online date25 Apr 2024
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2024

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