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Understandings of the component causes of harm from cigarette smoking in Australia

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Understandings of the component causes of harm from cigarette smoking in Australia. / King, Bill; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Gartner, Coral E.; Hammond, David; Lewandowsky, Stephan; O’Connor, Richard.

In: Drug and Alcohol Review, Vol. 38, No. 7, 15.11.2019, p. 807-817.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

King, B, Borland, R, Yong, H-H, Gartner, CE, Hammond, D, Lewandowsky, S & O’Connor, R 2019, 'Understandings of the component causes of harm from cigarette smoking in Australia', Drug and Alcohol Review, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 807-817. https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.12995

APA

King, B., Borland, R., Yong, H-H., Gartner, C. E., Hammond, D., Lewandowsky, S., & O’Connor, R. (2019). Understandings of the component causes of harm from cigarette smoking in Australia. Drug and Alcohol Review, 38(7), 807-817. https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.12995

Vancouver

King B, Borland R, Yong H-H, Gartner CE, Hammond D, Lewandowsky S et al. Understandings of the component causes of harm from cigarette smoking in Australia. Drug and Alcohol Review. 2019 Nov 15;38(7):807-817. https://doi.org/10.1111/dar.12995

Author

King, Bill ; Borland, Ron ; Yong, Hua-Hie ; Gartner, Coral E. ; Hammond, David ; Lewandowsky, Stephan ; O’Connor, Richard. / Understandings of the component causes of harm from cigarette smoking in Australia. In: Drug and Alcohol Review. 2019 ; Vol. 38, No. 7. pp. 807-817.

Bibtex

@article{a2a85d856c9f40a2a14858a42ae2090b,
title = "Understandings of the component causes of harm from cigarette smoking in Australia",
abstract = "Introduction and aims: To investigate relationships between smoking-related behaviours and knowledge of the disease risks of smoking and the causes of smoking harms, using a four-way division of “component causes”: nicotine, other substances found in unburned tobacco, combustion products of tobacco, and additives. Design and methods: The data were collected using an on-line survey in Australia with 1047 participants in three groups; young non-smokers (18 to 25), young smokers (18 to 25) and older smokers (26 and above). Results: Most participants agreed that cancer and heart disease are major risks of smoking but only a quarter accurately quantified the mortality risk of lifetime daily smoking. Very few (2 of 1047) correctly estimated the relative contributions of all four component causes. Post-hoc analyses reinterpreting responses as expressions of relative concern about combustion products and nicotine showed that 29{\%} of participants rated combustion products above nicotine. We delineated six relative concern segments, most of which had distinctive patterns of beliefs and actions. However, higher levels of concern about combustion products were only weakly positively associated with harm reducing beliefs and actions.Discussion and conclusions: Most smokers do not appear to understand the risks of smoking and their causes well enough to be able to think systematically about the courses of action open to them to reduce their health risk. To facilitate informed decision-making, tobacco control communicators may need to better balance the dual aims of creating fear/negative affect about smoking and imparting knowledge about the health harms and their mechanisms.",
keywords = "risk perception, harm reduction, nicotine, smoking",
author = "Bill King and Ron Borland and Hua-Hie Yong and Gartner, {Coral E.} and David Hammond and Stephan Lewandowsky and Richard O’Connor",
year = "2019",
month = "11",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1111/dar.12995",
language = "English",
volume = "38",
pages = "807--817",
journal = "Drug and Alcohol Review",
issn = "0959-5236",
publisher = "Wiley",
number = "7",

}

RIS - suitable for import to EndNote

TY - JOUR

T1 - Understandings of the component causes of harm from cigarette smoking in Australia

AU - King, Bill

AU - Borland, Ron

AU - Yong, Hua-Hie

AU - Gartner, Coral E.

AU - Hammond, David

AU - Lewandowsky, Stephan

AU - O’Connor, Richard

PY - 2019/11/15

Y1 - 2019/11/15

N2 - Introduction and aims: To investigate relationships between smoking-related behaviours and knowledge of the disease risks of smoking and the causes of smoking harms, using a four-way division of “component causes”: nicotine, other substances found in unburned tobacco, combustion products of tobacco, and additives. Design and methods: The data were collected using an on-line survey in Australia with 1047 participants in three groups; young non-smokers (18 to 25), young smokers (18 to 25) and older smokers (26 and above). Results: Most participants agreed that cancer and heart disease are major risks of smoking but only a quarter accurately quantified the mortality risk of lifetime daily smoking. Very few (2 of 1047) correctly estimated the relative contributions of all four component causes. Post-hoc analyses reinterpreting responses as expressions of relative concern about combustion products and nicotine showed that 29% of participants rated combustion products above nicotine. We delineated six relative concern segments, most of which had distinctive patterns of beliefs and actions. However, higher levels of concern about combustion products were only weakly positively associated with harm reducing beliefs and actions.Discussion and conclusions: Most smokers do not appear to understand the risks of smoking and their causes well enough to be able to think systematically about the courses of action open to them to reduce their health risk. To facilitate informed decision-making, tobacco control communicators may need to better balance the dual aims of creating fear/negative affect about smoking and imparting knowledge about the health harms and their mechanisms.

AB - Introduction and aims: To investigate relationships between smoking-related behaviours and knowledge of the disease risks of smoking and the causes of smoking harms, using a four-way division of “component causes”: nicotine, other substances found in unburned tobacco, combustion products of tobacco, and additives. Design and methods: The data were collected using an on-line survey in Australia with 1047 participants in three groups; young non-smokers (18 to 25), young smokers (18 to 25) and older smokers (26 and above). Results: Most participants agreed that cancer and heart disease are major risks of smoking but only a quarter accurately quantified the mortality risk of lifetime daily smoking. Very few (2 of 1047) correctly estimated the relative contributions of all four component causes. Post-hoc analyses reinterpreting responses as expressions of relative concern about combustion products and nicotine showed that 29% of participants rated combustion products above nicotine. We delineated six relative concern segments, most of which had distinctive patterns of beliefs and actions. However, higher levels of concern about combustion products were only weakly positively associated with harm reducing beliefs and actions.Discussion and conclusions: Most smokers do not appear to understand the risks of smoking and their causes well enough to be able to think systematically about the courses of action open to them to reduce their health risk. To facilitate informed decision-making, tobacco control communicators may need to better balance the dual aims of creating fear/negative affect about smoking and imparting knowledge about the health harms and their mechanisms.

KW - risk perception

KW - harm reduction

KW - nicotine

KW - smoking

U2 - 10.1111/dar.12995

DO - 10.1111/dar.12995

M3 - Article

C2 - 31691407

VL - 38

SP - 807

EP - 817

JO - Drug and Alcohol Review

JF - Drug and Alcohol Review

SN - 0959-5236

IS - 7

ER -