Unraveling ancestry, kinship, and violence in a Late Neolithic mass grave

Hannes Schroeder*, Ashot Margaryan, Marzena Szmyt, Bertrand Theulot, Piotr Włodarczak, Simon Rasmussen, Shyam Gopalakrishnan, Anita Szczepanek, Tomasz Konopka, Theis Z.T. Jensen, Barbara Witkowska, Stanisław Wilk, Marcin M. Przybyła, Łukasz Pospieszny, Karl Göran Sjögren, Zdzislaw Belka, Jesper Olsen, Kristian Kristiansen, Eske Willerslev, Karin M. FreiMartin Sikora, Niels N. Johannsen, Morten E. Allentoft

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

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The third millennium BCE was a period of major cultural and demographic changes in Europe that signaled the beginning of the Bronze Age. People from the Pontic steppe expanded westward, leading to the formation of the Corded Ware complex and transforming the genetic landscape of Europe. At the time, the Globular Amphora culture (3300–2700 BCE) existed over large parts of Central and Eastern Europe, but little is known about their interaction with neighboring Corded Ware groups and steppe societies. Here we present a detailed study of a Late Neolithic mass grave from southern Poland belonging to the Globular Amphora culture and containing the remains of 15 men, women, and children, all killed by blows to the head. We sequenced their genomes to between 1.1- and 3.9-fold coverage and performed kinship analyses that demonstrate that the individuals belonged to a large extended family. The bodies had been carefully laid out according to kin relationships by someone who evidently knew the deceased. From a population genetic viewpoint, the people from Koszyce are clearly distinct from neighboring Corded Ware groups because of their lack of steppe-related ancestry. Although the reason for the massacre is unknown, it is possible that it was connected with the expansion of Corded Ware groups, which may have resulted in competition for resources and violent conflict. Together with the archaeological evidence, these analyses provide an unprecedented level of insight into the kinship structure and social behavior of a Late Neolithic community.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1820210116
Pages (from-to)10705-10710
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number22
Early online date6 May 2019
Publication statusPublished - 28 May 2019


  • Ancient DNA
  • Archaeology
  • Kinship
  • Migration
  • Violence


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