Updated systematic review and meta-analysis of studies examining the relationship between reported racism and health and well-being for children and youth: a protocol

Naomi Priest, Kate Doery, Mandy Truong, Shuaijun Guo, Ryan Perry, Brigid Trenerry, Saffron Karlsen, Yvonne Kelly, Yin Paradies

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
38 Downloads (Pure)


INTRODUCTION: Racism is a critical determinant of health and health inequities for children and youth. This protocol aims to update the first systematic review conducted by Priest et al (2013), including a meta-analysis of findings. Based on previous empirical data, it is anticipated that child and youth health will be negatively impacted by racism. Findings from this review will provide updated evidence of effect sizes across outcomes and identify moderators and mediators of relationships between racism and health.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This systematic review and meta-analysis will include studies that examine associations between experiences of racism and racial discrimination with health outcomes of children and youth aged 0-24 years. Exposure measures include self-reported or proxy reported systemic, interpersonal and intrapersonal racism. Outcome measures include general health and well-being, physical health, mental health, biological markers, healthcare utilisation and health behaviours. A comprehensive search of studies from the earliest time available to October 2020 will be conducted. A random effects meta-analysis will examine the average effect of racism on a range of health outcomes. Study-level moderation will test the difference in effect sizes with regard to various sample and exposure characteristics. This review has been registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This review will provide evidence for future research within the field and help to support policy and practice development. Results will be widely disseminated to both academic and non-academic audiences through peer-review publications, community summaries and presentations to research, policy, practice and community audiences.


Original languageEnglish
Article numbere043722
Pages (from-to)e043722
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 16 Jun 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
1Centre for Social Research and Methods, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia 2Population Health, Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, Parkville, Victoria, Australia 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia 4Department of Pediatrics, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia 5Lee Kuan Yew Centre for Innovative Cities, Singapore University of Technology and Design, Singapore 6School of Sociology, Politics and International Studies, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK 7Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK 8School of Humanities and Social Science, Deakin University, Burwood, Victoria, Australia Twitter Mandy Truong @mandy_tru and Brigid Trenerry @BrigidTrenerry Contributors NP conceptualised the review, contributed to all aspects of the protocol and the guarantor for the review. KD codrafted the protocol, developed the search strategy with medical librarians. RP and SG assisted with drafting and revising the protocol. MT, BT, SK, YK and YP reviewed the protocol draft. Funding NP was supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council Career Development Fellowship (APP1123677). Disclaimer The funding sources had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis and interpretation of the data; preparation, review or approval of the manuscript and decision to submit the manuscript for publication.

Publisher Copyright:
© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2021. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.


  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Mental Health
  • Meta-Analysis as Topic
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care
  • Racism
  • Self Report
  • Systematic Reviews as Topic


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