Use of a Non-Penetrating Captive Bolt for Euthanasia of Neonate Goats

Andrew Grist, JA Lines, Toby Knowles, Charlie Mason, Stephen Wotton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)
471 Downloads (Pure)


A non-penetrating captive bolt device, powered by a 1 grain 0.2200 cartridge delivering a calculated kinetic energy of 47 Joules was tested as a euthanasia method on 200 neonate goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) of mean dead weight = 4.425 kg (SD (Standard deviation) 0.4632), to assess effectiveness and shot position. Evaluation of the method was conducted using behavioural indicators of brain dysfunction followed by post mortem examination of the heads. Once correct shot position had been established, 100% of 158 kids (95% confidence interval 97.5% to 100%) were successfully stunned/killed with a shot positioned on the midline, between the ears, with the chin tucked into the neck. The use of the Accles and Shelvoke CASH Small Animal Tool can therefore be recommended for the euthanasia of neonate goats with a 1 grain cartridge and a specific shooting position.
Original languageEnglish
Article number58
Number of pages13
Issue number4
Early online date20 Apr 2018
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2018


  • animal welfare
  • euthanasia
  • livestock
  • mechanical killing
  • on-farm killing
  • neonate goats


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