T2-weighted short-tau inversion recovery (T2w-STIR) imaging is the best approach for oedema-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as it suppresses the signal from flowing blood and from fat and enhances sensitivity to tissue fluid. The purpose of this pictorial review is to illustrate the clinical use and application of this technique in various ischaemic and non-ischaemic conditions. In ischaemic heart disease, T2w-STIR represents the technique of choice for detecting oedema in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI), allowing discrimination of acute and chronic injuries. Myocardial haemorrhage may also be depicted as a region of signal abnormality characterised by a central hypointense core with a peripheral hyperintense rim, presumably reflecting the presence of intracellular methaemoglobin within the necrotic area. In the acute setting, elevated T2 relaxation times in association with regional contractile dysfunction but no signs of delayed enhancement may also signify a reversible ischaemic injury without necrosis. In acute myocarditis, the distribution pattern of T2w hyperintensity may be focal in approximately 30% of patients or diffuse in the remaining 70%, and myocardial oedema may be the only marker of disease. Tissue oedema may also be observed in various other conditions, such as primary cardiomyopathies (CMP), storage disease, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac transplant rejection. T2w-STIR represents an appealing and versatile technique that can be applied in a wide variety of ischaemic and non-ischaemic conditions, allowing detection of segmental or global increase of myocardial free water content, reflecting an acute myocardial injury.
|Translated title of the contribution||Utility of T2-weighted short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences in cardiac MRI: an overview of clinical applications in ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart disease|
|Pages (from-to)||32 - 46|
|Number of pages||15|
|Publication status||Published - Feb 2011|