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Variation in recognition of happy and sad facial expressions and self-reported depressive symptom severity: A prospective cohort study

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Variation in recognition of happy and sad facial expressions and self-reported depressive symptom severity : A prospective cohort study. / Bone, Jessica K; Lewis, Gemma; Button, Katherine S; Duffy, Larisa; Harmer, Catherine J; Munafò, Marcus R; Penton-Voak, Ian S; Wiles, Nicola J; Lewis, Glyn.

In: Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 257, 01.10.2019, p. 461-469.

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Bone, J. K., Lewis, G., Button, K. S., Duffy, L., Harmer, C. J., Munafò, M. R., ... Lewis, G. (2019). Variation in recognition of happy and sad facial expressions and self-reported depressive symptom severity: A prospective cohort study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 257, 461-469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2019.06.025

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Bone, Jessica K ; Lewis, Gemma ; Button, Katherine S ; Duffy, Larisa ; Harmer, Catherine J ; Munafò, Marcus R ; Penton-Voak, Ian S ; Wiles, Nicola J ; Lewis, Glyn. / Variation in recognition of happy and sad facial expressions and self-reported depressive symptom severity : A prospective cohort study. In: Journal of Affective Disorders. 2019 ; Vol. 257. pp. 461-469.

Bibtex

@article{9343b2ff405e45a3ac1762c2c8a8bdb8,
title = "Variation in recognition of happy and sad facial expressions and self-reported depressive symptom severity: A prospective cohort study",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE: Cognitive theories suggest people with depression interpret self-referential social information negatively. However, it is unclear whether these biases precede or follow depression. We investigated whether facial expression recognition was associated with depressive symptoms cross-sectionally and longitudinally.METHODS: Prospective cohort study of people who had visited UK primary care in the past year reporting depressive symptoms (n = 509). Depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) at four time-points, 2 weeks apart. A computerised task assessed happy and sad facial expression recognition at three time-points (n = 505 at time 1). The unbiased hit rate measured ability to recognise emotions accounting for any general tendency to identify the emotion when it was not present.RESULTS: The sample included the full range of depressive symptom severity, with 45{\%} meeting diagnostic criteria for depression. There was no evidence that happy or sad unbiased hit rates were associated with concurrent or subsequent depressive symptoms. There was weak evidence that, for every additional face incorrectly classified as happy, concurrent PHQ-9 scores reduced by 0.05 of a point (95{\%} CI = -0.10 to 0.002, p = 0.06 after adjustment for confounders). This association was strongest for more ambiguous facial expressions (interaction term p<0.001).LIMITATIONS: This was an observational study with relatively short follow-up (6 weeks) and small changes in depressive symptoms and emotion recognition. Only 7{\%} of invited patients consented to participate.CONCLUSIONS: Reduced misclassifications of ambiguous faces as happy could be a state marker of depression, but was not associated with subsequent depressive symptoms. Future research should focus on the interpretation of ambiguous social information.",
keywords = "Cognition, Cohort study, Depression, Emotion recognition, Facial expressions",
author = "Bone, {Jessica K} and Gemma Lewis and Button, {Katherine S} and Larisa Duffy and Harmer, {Catherine J} and Munaf{\`o}, {Marcus R} and Penton-Voak, {Ian S} and Wiles, {Nicola J} and Glyn Lewis",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.",
year = "2019",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.jad.2019.06.025",
language = "English",
volume = "257",
pages = "461--469",
journal = "Journal of Affective Disorders",
issn = "0165-0327",
publisher = "North-Holland Publishing Company",

}

RIS - suitable for import to EndNote

TY - JOUR

T1 - Variation in recognition of happy and sad facial expressions and self-reported depressive symptom severity

T2 - A prospective cohort study

AU - Bone, Jessica K

AU - Lewis, Gemma

AU - Button, Katherine S

AU - Duffy, Larisa

AU - Harmer, Catherine J

AU - Munafò, Marcus R

AU - Penton-Voak, Ian S

AU - Wiles, Nicola J

AU - Lewis, Glyn

N1 - Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.

PY - 2019/10/1

Y1 - 2019/10/1

N2 - OBJECTIVE: Cognitive theories suggest people with depression interpret self-referential social information negatively. However, it is unclear whether these biases precede or follow depression. We investigated whether facial expression recognition was associated with depressive symptoms cross-sectionally and longitudinally.METHODS: Prospective cohort study of people who had visited UK primary care in the past year reporting depressive symptoms (n = 509). Depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) at four time-points, 2 weeks apart. A computerised task assessed happy and sad facial expression recognition at three time-points (n = 505 at time 1). The unbiased hit rate measured ability to recognise emotions accounting for any general tendency to identify the emotion when it was not present.RESULTS: The sample included the full range of depressive symptom severity, with 45% meeting diagnostic criteria for depression. There was no evidence that happy or sad unbiased hit rates were associated with concurrent or subsequent depressive symptoms. There was weak evidence that, for every additional face incorrectly classified as happy, concurrent PHQ-9 scores reduced by 0.05 of a point (95% CI = -0.10 to 0.002, p = 0.06 after adjustment for confounders). This association was strongest for more ambiguous facial expressions (interaction term p<0.001).LIMITATIONS: This was an observational study with relatively short follow-up (6 weeks) and small changes in depressive symptoms and emotion recognition. Only 7% of invited patients consented to participate.CONCLUSIONS: Reduced misclassifications of ambiguous faces as happy could be a state marker of depression, but was not associated with subsequent depressive symptoms. Future research should focus on the interpretation of ambiguous social information.

AB - OBJECTIVE: Cognitive theories suggest people with depression interpret self-referential social information negatively. However, it is unclear whether these biases precede or follow depression. We investigated whether facial expression recognition was associated with depressive symptoms cross-sectionally and longitudinally.METHODS: Prospective cohort study of people who had visited UK primary care in the past year reporting depressive symptoms (n = 509). Depressive symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) at four time-points, 2 weeks apart. A computerised task assessed happy and sad facial expression recognition at three time-points (n = 505 at time 1). The unbiased hit rate measured ability to recognise emotions accounting for any general tendency to identify the emotion when it was not present.RESULTS: The sample included the full range of depressive symptom severity, with 45% meeting diagnostic criteria for depression. There was no evidence that happy or sad unbiased hit rates were associated with concurrent or subsequent depressive symptoms. There was weak evidence that, for every additional face incorrectly classified as happy, concurrent PHQ-9 scores reduced by 0.05 of a point (95% CI = -0.10 to 0.002, p = 0.06 after adjustment for confounders). This association was strongest for more ambiguous facial expressions (interaction term p<0.001).LIMITATIONS: This was an observational study with relatively short follow-up (6 weeks) and small changes in depressive symptoms and emotion recognition. Only 7% of invited patients consented to participate.CONCLUSIONS: Reduced misclassifications of ambiguous faces as happy could be a state marker of depression, but was not associated with subsequent depressive symptoms. Future research should focus on the interpretation of ambiguous social information.

KW - Cognition

KW - Cohort study

KW - Depression

KW - Emotion recognition

KW - Facial expressions

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85068832258&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jad.2019.06.025

DO - 10.1016/j.jad.2019.06.025

M3 - Article

VL - 257

SP - 461

EP - 469

JO - Journal of Affective Disorders

JF - Journal of Affective Disorders

SN - 0165-0327

ER -