Variation in the oral processing of everyday meals is associated with fullness and meal size; a potential nudge to reduce energy intake?

Danielle Ferriday, Matthew Bosworth, Nicolas Godinot, Nathalie Martin, Ciaran G. Forde, Emmy Van Den Heuvel, Sarah L. Appleton, Felix J Mercer Moss, Peter J Rogers, Jeffrey M. Brunstrom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)

27 Citations (Scopus)
338 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N=12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using; i) video-recordings of the mouth and ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N=24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the ‘fast’ or ‘slow’ meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight.
Original languageEnglish
Article number315
JournalNutrients
Volume8
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 21 May 2016

Structured keywords

  • Brain and Behaviour
  • Nutrition and Behaviour

Keywords

  • Oral processing behaviours
  • Satiation
  • Satiety
  • Expected satiation
  • Liking
  • Appetite
  • Nudge theory

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