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Virtual qubits, virtual temperatures, and the foundations of thermodynamics

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Virtual qubits, virtual temperatures, and the foundations of thermodynamics. / Brunner, Nicolas; Linden, Noah; Popescu, Sandu; Skrzypczyk, Paul.

In: Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, Vol. 85, No. 5, 051117, 14.05.2012, p. -.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Harvard

Brunner, N, Linden, N, Popescu, S & Skrzypczyk, P 2012, 'Virtual qubits, virtual temperatures, and the foundations of thermodynamics', Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, vol. 85, no. 5, 051117, pp. -. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.85.051117

APA

Brunner, N., Linden, N., Popescu, S., & Skrzypczyk, P. (2012). Virtual qubits, virtual temperatures, and the foundations of thermodynamics. Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics, 85(5), -. [051117]. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.85.051117

Vancouver

Brunner N, Linden N, Popescu S, Skrzypczyk P. Virtual qubits, virtual temperatures, and the foundations of thermodynamics. Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics. 2012 May 14;85(5):-. 051117. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.85.051117

Author

Brunner, Nicolas ; Linden, Noah ; Popescu, Sandu ; Skrzypczyk, Paul. / Virtual qubits, virtual temperatures, and the foundations of thermodynamics. In: Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics. 2012 ; Vol. 85, No. 5. pp. -.

Bibtex

@article{73937d74e92d417698aaf4048d839716,
title = "Virtual qubits, virtual temperatures, and the foundations of thermodynamics",
abstract = "We argue that thermal machines can be understood from the perspective of {"}virtual qubits{"} at {"}virtual temperatures{"}: The relevant way to view the two heat baths which drive a thermal machine is as a composite system. Virtual qubits are two-level subsystems of this composite, and their virtual temperatures can take on any value, positive or negative. Thermal machines act upon an external system by placing it in thermal contact with a well-selected range of virtual qubits and temperatures. We demonstrate these claims by studying the smallest thermal machines. We show further that this perspective provides a powerful way to view thermodynamics, by analyzing a number of phenomena. This includes approaching Carnot efficiency (where we find that all machines do so essentially by becoming equivalent to the smallest thermal machines), entropy production in irreversible machines, and a way to view work in terms of negative temperature and population inversion. Moreover we introduce the idea of {"}genuine{"} thermal machines and are led to considering the concept of {"}strength{"} of work.",
author = "Nicolas Brunner and Noah Linden and Sandu Popescu and Paul Skrzypczyk",
year = "2012",
month = "5",
day = "14",
doi = "10.1103/PhysRevE.85.051117",
language = "English",
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journal = "Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics",
issn = "1539-3755",
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RIS - suitable for import to EndNote

TY - JOUR

T1 - Virtual qubits, virtual temperatures, and the foundations of thermodynamics

AU - Brunner, Nicolas

AU - Linden, Noah

AU - Popescu, Sandu

AU - Skrzypczyk, Paul

PY - 2012/5/14

Y1 - 2012/5/14

N2 - We argue that thermal machines can be understood from the perspective of "virtual qubits" at "virtual temperatures": The relevant way to view the two heat baths which drive a thermal machine is as a composite system. Virtual qubits are two-level subsystems of this composite, and their virtual temperatures can take on any value, positive or negative. Thermal machines act upon an external system by placing it in thermal contact with a well-selected range of virtual qubits and temperatures. We demonstrate these claims by studying the smallest thermal machines. We show further that this perspective provides a powerful way to view thermodynamics, by analyzing a number of phenomena. This includes approaching Carnot efficiency (where we find that all machines do so essentially by becoming equivalent to the smallest thermal machines), entropy production in irreversible machines, and a way to view work in terms of negative temperature and population inversion. Moreover we introduce the idea of "genuine" thermal machines and are led to considering the concept of "strength" of work.

AB - We argue that thermal machines can be understood from the perspective of "virtual qubits" at "virtual temperatures": The relevant way to view the two heat baths which drive a thermal machine is as a composite system. Virtual qubits are two-level subsystems of this composite, and their virtual temperatures can take on any value, positive or negative. Thermal machines act upon an external system by placing it in thermal contact with a well-selected range of virtual qubits and temperatures. We demonstrate these claims by studying the smallest thermal machines. We show further that this perspective provides a powerful way to view thermodynamics, by analyzing a number of phenomena. This includes approaching Carnot efficiency (where we find that all machines do so essentially by becoming equivalent to the smallest thermal machines), entropy production in irreversible machines, and a way to view work in terms of negative temperature and population inversion. Moreover we introduce the idea of "genuine" thermal machines and are led to considering the concept of "strength" of work.

U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.051117

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevE.85.051117

M3 - Article

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JO - Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics

JF - Physical Review E: Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics

SN - 1539-3755

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