Visual system evolution and the nature of the ancestral snake

Bruno Fonseca Simoes*, F. L. Sampaio, C. Jared, M. M. Antoniazzi, E. R. Loew, J. K. Bowmaker, A. Rodriguez, N. S. Hart, D. M. Hunt, J. C. Partridge, D. J. Gower

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The dominant hypothesis for the evolutionary origin of snakes from 'lizards' (non-snake squamates) is that stem snakes acquired many snake features while passing through a profound burrowing (fossorial) phase. To investigate this, we examined the visual pigments and their encoding opsin genes in a range of squamate reptiles, focusing on fossorial lizards and snakes. We sequenced opsin transcripts isolated from retinal cDNA and used microspectrophotometry to measure directly the spectral absorbance of the photoreceptor visual pigments in a subset of samples. In snakes, but not lizards, dedicated fossoriality (as in Scolecophidia and the alethinophidian Anilius scytale) corresponds with loss of all visual opsins other than RH1 (λmax 490-497 nm); all other snakes (including less dedicated burrowers) also have functional sws1 and lws opsin genes. In contrast, the retinas of all lizards sampled, even highly fossorial amphisbaenians with reduced eyes, express functional lws, sws1, sws2 and rh1 genes, and most also express rh2 (i.e. they express all five of the visual opsin genes present in the ancestral vertebrate). Our evidence of visual pigment complements suggests that the visual system of stem snakes was partly reduced, with two (RH2 and SWS2) of the ancestral vertebrate visual pigments being eliminated, but that this did not extend to the extreme additional loss of SWS1 and LWS that subsequently occurred (probably independently) in highly fossorial extant scolecophidians and A. scytale. We therefore consider it unlikely that the ancestral snake was as fossorial as extant scolecophidians, whether or not the latter are para- or monophyletic.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1309-1320
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Evolutionary Biology
Volume28
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2015

Keywords

  • Fossoriality
  • Lizards
  • Opsins
  • Scolecophidia
  • Squamata
  • Vision

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Visual system evolution and the nature of the ancestral snake'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this