This article examines the relocation of schools from mainland China and Hong Kong to the neutral enclave of Macao during the Second World War in East Asia. It argues that the war brought to the Portuguese-administered territory a new cosmopolitanism that was especially noticeable in the enhancement of educational opportunities. Moving to Macao allowed for the resumption of educational activities interrupted elsewhere and for the linkage of teaching and learning with relief and resistance. The tens of thousands of student-refugees who ended up in Macao featured in different imperial and nationalist initiatives that coexisted in peculiar ways. On the basis of multilingual archival materials, newspapers, and memoirs, this study explores ambivalent experiences of refuge and exchange during the Second World War through the case study of the transfer of dozens of schools to a peripheral territory at the crossroads of several empires.
Bibliographical noteCopyright © Twentieth Century China Journal, Inc. This article first appeared in Twentieth-Century China 46:2 (2021), 130-152. Reprinted with permission by Johns Hopkins University Press.
- Hong Kong
- Second World War