What do external consultants from private and not-for-profit companies offer healthcare commissioners? A qualitative study of knowledge exchange

Lesley Wye, Emer Brangan, Ailsa M Cameron, John Gabbay, Jonathan H Klein, Rachel Anthwal, Catherine Pope

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle (Academic Journal)peer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
337 Downloads (Pure)


Objectives The use of external consultants from private and not-for-profit providers in the National Health Service (NHS) is intended to improve the quality of commissioning. The aim of this study was to learn about the support offered to healthcare commissioners, how external consultants and their clients work together and the perceived impact on the quality of commissioning.

Setting NHS commissioning organisations and private and not-for-profit providers.

Design Mixed methods case study of eight cases.

Data collection 92 interviews with external consultants (n=36), their clients (n=47) and others (n=9). Observation of 25 training events and meetings. Documentation, for example, meeting minutes and reports.

Analysis Constant comparison. Data were coded, summarised and analysed by the research team with a coding framework to facilitate cross-case comparison.

Results In the four contracts presented here, external providers offered technical solutions (eg, software tools), outsourcing and expertise including project management, data interpretation and brokering relationships with experts. In assessing perceived impact on quality of commissioning, two contracts had limited value, one had short-term benefits and one provided short and longer term benefits. Contracts with commissioners actively learning, embedding and applying new skills were more valued. Other elements of success were: (1) addressing clearly agreed problems of relevance to managerial and operational staff (2) solutions co-produced at all organisational levels (3) external consultants working directly with clients to interpret data outputs to inform locally contextualised commissioning strategies. Without explicit knowledge exchange strategies, outsourcing commissioning to external providers resulted in the NHS clients becoming dependent.

Conclusions NHS commissioning will be disadvantaged if commissioners both fail to learn in the short term from the knowledge of external providers and in the longer term lose local skills. Knowledge exchange mechanisms are a vital component of commissioning and should be embedded in external provider contracts.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere006558
Number of pages9
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 25 Feb 2015

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