This review discusses the causes, outcome and prevention of whiplash injury, which costs the economy of the United Kingdom approximately £3.64 billion per annum. Most cases occur as the result of rear-end vehicle collisions at speeds of less than 14 mph. Patients present with neck pain and stiffness, occipital headache, thoracolumbar back pain and upper-limb pain and paraesthesia. Over 66% make a full recovery and 2% are permanently disabled. The outcome can be predicted in 70% after three months.