Changes Experienced by Established Teachers After Inclusion Training, and the Resultant Changes in Their Inclusive Practices

  • Hastings Chim

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Education (EdD)


Inclusive education has been implemented in Hong Kong since the 1980s. However, the practice of inclusive education is controversial both locally and globally and has seen varying levels of success. Currently, Hong Kong is still in the process of developing its approach to inclusive education, and teachers’ training is seen as crucial to its success. This study investigates changes that established teachers experienced after inclusion training and how these changes were related to their school-based inclusive practices. Four case studies were conducted using a mixed-methods approach comprising five semi-structured interviews, four self-reported psychometric measures on self-efficacy, and one lesson observation with each participant, over the duration of the course and up to two months afterwards. Data were analysed using thematic analysis of the interviews and descriptive data analysis of the psychometric measures. Data triangulation was supported by an integrated framework consisting of the affective, behaviour and cognitive model, self-efficacy theory, and the attitude-social influence-self-efficacy model based on the theory of planned behaviour. Based on this integrated framework, different macro and micro themes were developed through iterative engagement with both qualitative and quantitative data. This study concludes that the inclusion training developed the teachers’ reflective capabilities - not solely due to the content of the training, but also how they were inspired to reflect on initiating changes in their thinking, resilience, flexibility and even their own identities. Such changes were related to their school-based inclusive practices, including how they reflected on their pedagogies, thinking and collaboration with their colleagues, and how they positioned themselves in an exclusive, unique, and important role. This profession is seen to have its own language, terminologies, and skills, which enable teachers to feel that they are specialists instead of regular teachers who are merely designated with the extra task of working with SEN students. The study has implications for researchers upon the use of mixed methods in studying inclusion training, and for teacher educators upon how their training programmes could support teachers’ reflection on the ways in which their specialisation can help them cater for the diversity amongst learners.
Date of Award25 Sept 2018
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Bristol
SupervisorJo Rose (Supervisor)

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