Ureteric Perturbation and Obstruction

Student thesis: Doctoral ThesisDoctor of Medicine (MD)


The ureter is a complex organ with unique characteristics, and it responds to the continuouschanges in its internal and external environment. The initiation and propagation of uretericperistalsis along the different ureteric segments and its adaptability to various flow conditionsare not clearly understood. The hypothesis of this thesis postulates that the ureter can adaptto various physiological and pathological conditions due to the difference in the contractileand pharmacological properties of its segments.To investigate this hypothesis; the ureter was divided into five segments, and the basalcontractile properties of these segments were investigated and compared.The effect of cholinergic pharmacological manipulation on the ureter was investigated in theupper, middle and lower ureteric segments. Also, the effect of ureteric obstruction causedby kidney stones was investigated in the upper and lower ureteric segments.Methods:The investigation of ureteric basal and pharmacologically modulated contractility andobstruction by stones were conducted in organ bath experiments using ureteric segmentsfrom freshly slaughtered pigs.Results & Conclusion:The different ureteric segments demonstrated variability in their contractile behaviour. Theureter demonstrated a spasmodic response to obstruction caused by the stone passage. Thedifference in ureteric segment contractility and response to pharmacological manipulationhas provided further insight into the complexity and adaptability of the ureter to variousconditions and further targetted investigations to explore a new approach to medicalexpulsive therapy to facilitate the passage of ureteric stones.
Date of Award21 Jan 2021
Original languageEnglish
Awarding Institution
  • The University of Bristol
SupervisorChris H Fry (Supervisor) & Bahareh Vahabi (Supervisor)

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