Skip to content

Digital Education of Health Professionals on the Management of Domestic Violence: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis by the Digital Health Education Collaboration

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

  • Ushashree Divakar
  • Nuraini Nazeha
  • Pawel Posadzki
  • Krister Jarbrink
  • Ram Bajpai
  • Andy Hau Yan Ho
  • James Campbell
  • Gene Feder
  • Josip Car
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere13868
Pages (from-to)e13868
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Medical Internet Research
Issue number5
DateAccepted/In press - 1 May 2019
DatePublished (current) - 23 May 2019


BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization states that 35% of women experience domestic violence at least once during their lifetimes. However, approximately 80% of health professionals have never received any training on management of this major public health concern.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of health professions digital education on domestic violence compared to that of traditional ways or no intervention.

METHODS: Seven electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials from January 1990 to August 2017. The Cochrane Handbook guideline was followed, and studies reporting the use of digital education interventions to educate health professionals on domestic violence management were included.

RESULTS: Six studies with 631 participants met our inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of 5 studies showed that as compared to control conditions, digital education may improve knowledge (510 participants and 5 studies; standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.67, 95% CI 0.38-0.95; I2=59%; low certainty evidence), attitudes (339 participants and 3 studies; SMD 0.67, 95% CI 0.25-1.09; I2=68%; low certainty evidence), and self-efficacy (174 participants and 3 studies; SMD 0.47, 95% CI 0.16-0.77; I2=0%; moderate certainty evidence).

CONCLUSIONS: Evidence of the effectiveness of digital education on health professionals' understanding of domestic violence is promising. However, the certainty of the evidence is predominantly low and merits further research. Given the opportunity of scaled transformative digital education, both further research and implementation within an evaluative context should be prioritized.

Additional information

©Ushashree Divakar, Nuraini Nazeha, Pawel Posadzki, Krister Jarbrink, Ram Bajpai, Andy Hau Yan Ho, James Campbell, Gene Feder, Josip Car. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (, 23.05.2019.

    Research areas

  • Domestic violence, Evidence-based, Health workforce, Systematic reviews

Download statistics

No data available



  • Full-text PDF (final published version)

    Rights statement: This is the final published version of the article (version of record). It first appeared online via JMIR at . Please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.

    Final published version, 878 KB, PDF document

    Licence: CC BY


View research connections

Related faculties, schools or groups