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Slow down: Behavioural and physiological effects of reducing eating rate

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Original languageEnglish
Article number50
Number of pages23
JournalNutrients
Volume11
Issue number1
Early online date27 Dec 2018
DOIs
DateAccepted/In press - 19 Dec 2018
DateE-pub ahead of print - 27 Dec 2018
DatePublished (current) - Jan 2019

Abstract

Slowing eating rate appears to be an effective strategy for reducing food intake. This feasibility study investigated the effect of eating rate on post-meal responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), plasma gastrointestinal hormone concentrations, appetite ratings, memory for recent eating, and snack consumption. Twenty-one participants (mean age 23 years with healthy body mass index) were randomly assigned to consume a 600 kcal meal at either a “normal” or “slow” rate (6 vs. 24 min). Immediately afterwards, participants rated meal enjoyment and satisfaction. FMRI was performed 2-h post-meal during a memory task about the meal. Appetite, peptide YY, and ghrelin were measured at baseline and every 30 min for 3 h. Participants were given an ad-libitum snack three hours post-meal. Results were reported as effect sizes (Cohen’s d) due to the feasibility sample size. The normal rate group found the meal more enjoyable (effect size = 0.5) and satisfying (effect size = 0.6). Two hours post-meal, the slow rate group reported greater fullness (effect size = 0.7) and more accurate portion size memory (effect sizes = 0.4), with a linear relationship between time taken to make portion size decisions and the BOLD response in satiety and reward brain regions. Ghrelin suppression post-meal was greater in the slow rate group (effect size = 0.8). Three hours post-meal, the slow rate group consumed on average 25% less energy from snacks (effect size = 0.5). These data offer novel insights about mechanisms underlying how eating rate affects food intake and have implications for the design of effective weight-management interventions.

    Research areas

  • Appetite hormones, Eating rate, Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), Meal enjoyment, Memory for recent eating, Satiety

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    Rights statement: This is the final published version of the article (version of record). It first appeared online via MDPI at https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/1/50 . Please refer to any applicable terms of use of the publisher.

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