Skip to content

Tocopherols, Tocomonoenols, and Tocotrienols in Oils of Costa Rican Palm Fruits: A Comparison between Six Varieties and Chemical versus Mechanical Extraction

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • Andrea Irías-Mata
  • Wolfgang Stuetz
  • Nadine Sus
  • Simon Hammann
  • Katrin Gralla
  • Aracelly Cordero-Solano
  • Walter Vetter
  • Jan Frank
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7476-7482
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Issue number34
DateAccepted/In press - 29 Jul 2017
DatePublished (current) - 30 Aug 2017


Palm oil is one of the richest sources of tocotrienols and may contain other non-tocopherol vitamin E congeners. The vitamin E profiles of fully ripened fruit mesocarp of three Elaeis guineensis, two Elaeis oleifera, and one hybrid O × G palm fruit genotypes from Costa Rica were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after mechanical extraction by a screw press and chemical extraction with hexane. γ-Tocotrienol, α-tocotrienol, and α-tocopherol were the most abundant tocochromanols, while other tocopherols (β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol) and α-tocomonoenol were detected at minor concentrations. Significant differences in vitamin E profiles between genotypes were observed, and the variety E. oleifera Quepos (CB9204) had by far the highest content of total tocotrienols (890 μg/g of oil) and total vitamin E (892 μg/g of oil). Chemical extraction with hexane afforded up to 2.5-fold higher vitamin E yields than screw press extraction. α-Tocomonoenol co-eluted with γ-tocopherol in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analyses and is a possible source of error in the quantification of γ-tocopherol in foods.

    Research areas

  • chromatography, Elaeis guineensis, Elaeis oleifera, hybrid O × G, oil extraction, palm fruit oil, palm oil extraction byproducts, pumpkin seed oil, Vitamin E



View research connections

Related faculties, schools or groups